Frederic the Great, "Eulogy on Julien Offray de la Mettrie" (1751)

The common ecclesiastic is like Don Quixote, who found marvelous adventures in commonplace events, or like the famous soldier, so engrossed with his system that he found columns in all the books he read. The majority of priests examine all works of literature as if they were treatises on theology, and filled with this one aim, they discover heresies everywhere. To this fact are due very many false judgements and very many accusations, for the most part unfair, against the authors. A book of physics should be read in the spirit of a physicist; nature, the truth, is its sole judge, and should absolve or condemn it. A book of astronomy should be read in the same manner. If a poor physician proves that the blow of a stick smartly rapped on the skull disturbs the mind, or that at a certain degree of heat reason wanders, one must either prove the contrary or keep quiet. If a skillful astronomer proves, in spite of Joshua, that the earth and all the celestial globes revolve around the sun, one must wither calculate better than he, or admit that the earth revolves.

Frederic's defense of the dead La Mettrie implicates mechanism in an almost Kuhnian history of scientific discovery. The battle between the theologians and scientists enforces a new concept of the soul; if the spirit is located in and is affected by the body, theology no longer has a place in the debate. Frederic dissolves the priestly claim to the soul, envisaging the medical profession as, perhaps, taking their place in matters metaphysical.

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